Man, Info and Help

It is a good habit read man pages, help pages, and info pages instead of immediatelly jumping to a web search.


If you are new to *nix, don’t expect to understand very much of the manuals when reading and trying stuff in the very first few attempts. It will really depend a lot on your background and previous experience, skills and expertise. Just keep trying.



Read the document about built-ins. Shell Built-In Commands.

Shells have built-in commands. Some of Bash’s built-ins include commands like help, pwd, type, and cd.

$ type cd
cd is a shell builtin

help is a builtin command that provides usage information on other builtin commands.


To see the list of Bash’s builtin commands, simply type help without any arguments.

To display the help for a builtin, you can either do man bash and search for that command or, more simple, quick and practical, use the help builtin. Start with this:

$ help help
$ help

Yes, run help without arguments once to see a list of Bash’s builtin commands.

Then try some others:

$ help <some builtin command>

$ help help
$ help builtin
$ help .
$ help source
$ help command
$ help [
$ help [[
$ help echo
$ help printf
# etc...



$ info info
$ man info
$ info --help


Of course, on Arch Linux, we are fine, but on Ubuntu, we need to apt install texinfo-doc-nonfree.

Generally, info pages are more user-friendly and tutorial-like than man pages. To read info pages, do

$ info <program or command>
$ info ed
$ info sed
$ info bash


Not all programs and commands have info pages, and when an info page does not exist for a given command, info shows the man page instead. vi, vim and rsync are some such programs.

You can also open info directly into a section of an info document (if you know the name of the section), something like:

$ info sed 'execution cycle'

Programs in the coreutils group have an invocation section:

$ info coreutils

$ info '(coreutils) echo invocation'
$ info coreutils 'echo invocation'

$ info '(coreutils) printf invocation'
$ info coreutils 'printf invocation'

$ info '(coreutils) kill invocation'
$ info coreutils 'kill invocation'

From GNU Emacs, you can read the info pages with:

C-h i m <command>

# For example:
C-h i m sed

Info has a lot of nomenclature, concepts and commands. info info explains about commands to find stuff inside info, navigate documents, etc. It is a somewhat complex system. Yet, a powerful one.

info summary

$ info emacs --node Files
$ info '(emacs)Files'

$ info /usr/local/share/info/
$ info ~/docs/

$ info sed 'sed scripts' 'the "s" command'
$ info emacs 'user input'

Run info info 'moving the cursor'.


META (or ALT) can also be achieved by hitting ESC, e.g. ESC-f for forward-word. And ESC itself can be produced with C-[. DEL is Backspace.

For a quick glance at all info commands and key bindings, open any info page, and press C-h.


$ man man
$ man --help
$ man foo

When someone tells you something like “it is docummented in some-command (3)”, they mean it is in section 3 of the man pages. Then you would do man 3 some-command or man some-command.3:

A real example of that could be with the printf(1) command or printf(3) from the C Standard Library:

$ man 1 printf
$ man printf.1

$ man 3 printf
$ man printf.3

If we don’t know what a man page name would be, we can search the man page names and their sort descriptions by using -k, which accepts a regular expression. By the way, man -k pattern is the same as apropos pattern.


If apropos or man -k says “nothing appropriate”, read man mandb and then run mandb as root.

$ man -k bc
... produces to many results...

So, let’s match commands that start with “bc”:

man -k ^bc on Ubuntu 19.04

$ man -k ^bc
bc (1)               - An arbitrary precision calculator language
bccmd (1)            - Utility for the CSR BCCMD interface
bcmp (3)             - compare byte sequences
bcopy (3)            - copy byte sequence

man -k ^bc on Arch Linux as of September, 2019

$ man -k ^bc
BC (3x)              - direct curses interface to the terminfo capability dat...
bc (1)               - An arbitrary precision calculator language
bc (1p)              - arbitrary-precision arithmetic language
bcmp (3)             - compare byte sequences
bcomps (1)           - biconnected components filter for graphs
bcopy (3)            - copy byte sequence


On Ubuntu, bc (1p) wasn’t available, but it was on Arch Linux.


A “p” right after a section number of a man page means the standard POSIX program/behavior. “bc (1p)” refers to the POSIX specs and behavior, while

Section numbers are more or less standard across Unix-like OSes, but the letters may vary.

Finding Info Node Names

$ info sed --output - | grep '^\*\s.\+::'
* Introduction::               Introduction
* Invoking sed::               Invocation
* sed scripts::                'sed' scripts
* sed addresses::              Addresses: selecting lines
* sed regular expressions::    Regular expressions: selecting text
* advanced sed::               Advanced 'sed': cycles and buffers
* Examples::                   Some sample scripts
* Limitations::                Limitations and (non-)limitations of GNU 'sed'
* Other Resources::            Other resources for learning about 'sed'
* Reporting Bugs::             Reporting bugs
* GNU Free Documentation License:: Copying and sharing this manual
* Concept Index::              A menu with all the topics in this manual.
* Command and Option Index::   A menu with all 'sed' commands and

$ info sed 'sed scripts' --output - | grep '^\*\s.\+::'
* sed script overview::      'sed' script overview
* sed commands list::        'sed' commands summary
* The "s" Command::          'sed''s Swiss Army Knife
* Common Commands::          Often used commands
* Other Commands::           Less frequently used commands
* Programming Commands::     Commands for 'sed' gurus
* Extended Commands::        Commands specific of GNU 'sed'
* Multiple commands syntax:: Extension for easier scripting

Then we use the names on the left column of the output above to read info for that command on that specific section.

$ info sed 'sed scripts' 'the "s" command' --output - | vim -

$ info sed 'sed scripts' 'the "s" command'

Or commands that end with “print” (but not “printf”, for example):

$ man -k print$
FcFontSetPrint (3)   - Print a set of patterns to stdout
FcPatternPrint (3)   - Print a pattern for debugging
FcValuePrint (3)     - Print a value to stdout
isprint (3)          - character classification functions
iswprint (3)         - test for printing wide character
print (1)            - execute programs via entries in the mailcap file

Bear in mind that all of these do the same thing:

man -k some_command
man --apropos some_command
apropos some_command

To search on the entire text of the man pages, use:

man --global-apropos some_command
man -K some_command

Note that it is an uppercase “K” this time.

`cp’ Man Page Example

man cp produces this:

Exerpt of `man cp’ on Arch Linux as of 2019

CP(1)                            User Commands                           CP(1)

       cp - copy files and directories

       cp [OPTION]... [-T] SOURCE DEST
       cp [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY SOURCE...

       Copy SOURCE to DEST, or multiple SOURCE(s) to DIRECTORY.

       Mandatory  arguments  to  long  options are mandatory for short options

Let’s understand the man page syntax.

“cp” is the name of the command or program. No mistery.

Anything inside “[” and “]” means that thing is optional. In this case, [OPTION] means that command line options are optional, that is, you can do something like cp -v foo.txt foo.txt.bpk, where -v is an option, or simply cp foo.txt foo.txt.bpk, and not use -v or any other option at all. You can think as options as flags the enable, disable, or configure the way the program should behave.

The three dots, …​, like in [OPTION]…​ or SOURCE…​, means that thing may occur more than one time. If something is optional, it may occur zero or more times. If that thing is required, then it has to occur one or more times. So, in the case of:


it means we must use cp, followed by zero or more command line options. Then, SOURCE…​ is required, but it can occur more than once. Finally, DIRECTORY is required, and must occur only once.


  • [THING] optional and may occur at most once.

  • [THING]... optional and may occur zero or more times.

  • THING required and must occur exactly once.

  • THING... required and must occur one or more time.

Since cp accepts multiple sources, we could copy more than one file at a time to a given destination directory. As an example, let’s copy three files to a backup directory.

$ cp main.c lib.h lib.c ~/bkpdir/

Suppose we want to use the options --verbose and --interactive (or their short versions, -v and -i), we can do:

$ cp --verbose --interactive main.c lib.h lib.c ~/bpkdir/

And with the short option syntax, we can group options. All three commands below do the same thing:

$ cp --verbose --interactive foo.txt foo.txt.bpk
$ cp -v -i foo.txt foo.txt.bpk
$ cp -vi foo.txt foo.txt.bpk

Note the -vi instead of -v -i in the last one!

`csi’ -help Example

One of the popular Scheme implementations is “Chicken”, and its command line tools include csi (Chicken Scheme Interpreter, for the command line REPL) and csc (Chicken Scheme Compiler).


On some distros, the names are now chicken-csi and chicken-scs because there were conflicts with Mono’s C Sharp Compiler and Chicken Scheme Compiler. See this Mono issue, this Debian bug report, and this Arch Linux bug report.


csi -help as of 2019 produces output different than showed here (as it was in 2017), but the examples and explanations are still very useful and enlightening.

$ csi -help

usage: csi [FILENAME | OPTION ...]

Note that we have the square braces enclosing two things, and there is a “|” (the pipe character) between those two things. That character means ‘OR’, that is, either one thing, or the or the other. It doesn’t mean “invoke csi followed by a filename followed by an option.” Nope, that is incorrect. What that means is either one of these:

$ csi program.scm

# or
$ sci <some option>

# but this is INCORRECT:
$ sci program.scm <some option>

On the other hand, if you look at the csi man page (or sci -help), you’ll see that some options require a file name, like the -s (or -script) option.

The moral is that the man page shows something that can be easily misunderstood:


Can lead one to think the syntax is:

$ sci program.scm -s

which is incorrect. The correct is either:

$ sci program.scm

or (because the option -s takes a filename)

$ sci -s program.scm

That is, csi filename or csi <option>, just that some options require a filename after the option itself.

Command Options

Most commands (or programs) accept both long versions and short versions of options. For example, rsync has -a, short for --archive, and -r, short for --recursive, among many others.

Still, even for programs that support both short and long versions of options, some options my be available only in long form (either because there was no appropriate single letter left, or for some other, sometimes odd, reason). For example, ls has the long option --group-directories-first, and there is no short name for that option. However, some programs allow the abbreviation of a long option as long it does not clash with some other option. For instance ls has only one long option that starts with --g (which is --group-directories-first), and it allows one to abbreviate it to something like --group-directories, or --group-d, or even --group or --g.

To give another example, the program xclip also allows unambiguous abbreviations; one can either write xclip -selection clipboard or abbreviate to xclip -sel clip. Many other commands allow this sort of abbreviation.

Another thing to consider is the number of hyphens. For most commands, short options use one hyphen, and long versions use two. You write either -r (one hyphen) or --recursive (two hyphens). However, some commands have long options (and sometimes only long options, and behold, they take only one single hyphen. xclip, chicken-csi and chicken-csi are examples of programs in which the long version uses only a single hyphen (and allow the unambiguous abbreviations).

Yet others, like tar, do not require the hyphen for the short versions. That is, you can either do tar -cf dir.tar dir/ or drop the hyphen and do tar cf dir.tar dir/.

java and javac, has long options, and some use one single hyphen, like -classpath, while others use two hyphens, like --class-path.


POSIX is a standard (specification) defined by the Open Group. There are four main sections in the spec:

GNU programs and commands attempt to follow POSIX, but adds several additional features and “extensions” to standard POSIX. So, when you use a command line program, it is very likely that you are not using plain, standard POSIX, but extra features not defined in POSIX as well.

Bash itself can be started with environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT set (or with the --posix option) so it will behave like a real, plain, bare POSIX shell as much as possible.

In sed, we can read its info page with info sed. In the section “Sed Scripts > The “s” Command”, we can read this:

Excerpt from GNU Sed Info Page

Finally, as a GNU 'sed' extension, you can include a special sequence
made of a backslash and one of the letters 'L', 'l', 'U', 'u', or 'E'.
The meaning is as follows:

     Turn the replacement to lowercase until a '\U' or '\E' is found,

     Turn the next character to lowercase,

     Turn the replacement to uppercase until a '\L' or '\E' is found,

     Turn the next character to uppercase,

     Stop case conversion started by '\L' or '\U'.

Most (if not all) GNU command line programs docs explicitly state when something is not plain POSIX, but an additional GNU feature. We can assume that most man and info pages are explicit when an option or something else is not POSIX-compliant or POSIX-defined.

Documentation Relationships

Also worth noting is that some docs refer to some other docs. If a man, help or info page mentions some other docs, pay attention to it. It usually means it implements things mentioned in the other docs, and possibily extends and overrides things from the mentioned docs. Let’s discuss one such example.

If you read the help for the builtin printf command, it says:

Excerpt of bash’s `help printf’

In addition to the standard format specifications described in printf(1),
printf interprets:

And then you do man 1 printf, and see:

Excerpt of `man 1 printf’:

NOTE:  your shell may have its own version of printf, which usually su‐
persedes the version described here.  Please refer to your shell's doc‐
umentation for details about the options it supports.

So, Bash’s printf uses the format especifications defined in printf(1), but nonetheless, printf(1) tells us that the Shell’s printf “usually supersedes” this printf. Moreover, man 1 printf talks about C printf.

If we read POSIX printf specs, we see it mentions XBD File Format Notation, which says:

If the format is exhausted while arguments remain, the excess arguments shall
be ignored.

So, one would expect that printf '%s\n' foo bar would print “foon” and ignore “bar”, still, take a look at what really happens:

$ printf '%s\n' foo bar

It is still printing “bar” even though the POSIX spec tells that it should be ignored. Except that XCU Command and Utilities extends and superseds XBD File Format Notation. Look:

The format operand shall be used as the format string described in XBD File
Format Notation with the following exceptions:


9. The format operand shall be reused as often as necessary to satisfy the
argument operands.


So, even though XBD tells that “excess arguments shall be ignored”, XCU printf overrides that and tells that it shall be reused to satisfy the operands.

End of Options echo Example

Unix shells and programs interpret -- to mean “end of options”. Guideline 10 on XBD Utility Syntax Guidelines 10 says:

Excerpt of XBD Utility Syntax Guidelines

The first -- argument that is not an option-argument should be accepted as a
delimiter indicating the end of options. Any following arguments should be
treated as operands, even if they begin with the '-' character.

Take a look:

$ printf -v
-bash: printf: -v: option requires an argument
printf: usage: printf [-v var] format [arguments]

But if we use --, then printf simply prints “-v”:

$ printf -- -v

Then we try it with echo:

$ echo -- -e
-- -e

Oops! echo printed -- -e, not just -e. It seems echo does not take -- to mean “end of options”. If we run help echo, it says nothing about --. Then we read XCU echo spec page, and come accross this:

Excerpt of XCU echo spec page

The echo utility shall not recognize the "--" argument in the manner
specified by Guideline 10 of XBD Utility Syntax Guidelines; "--" shall be
recognized as a string operand.

So that is it. Since GNU Bash echo does not override the way -- should work according to the specs, it is not even documented in help echo. And we should assume, at least when it comes to --, that echo bash builtin follows the specs!